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Below are many terms and phrases used throughout our site and in A Guide to Chodosh. We offer the varied pronunciations of Hebrew words, Ashkenazi/Ashkenazic Hebrew (spoken by Chassidic Jews and other Jews of European descent), and Sefardi/Sefardic Hebrew (spoken by Jews of Israeli, Yemenite, Middle-Eastern, Spanish and African descent). If pronunciation type isn't listed, both pronounce it the same. If you have any questions or comments on terms or phrases, or would like to see any particular terms added, feel free to contact us at [email protected], and we will consider adding them.

Basar: (Bah-sahr) בשר Meat.

Batul: (Bah-tool) Sefardi. A substance that is considered nullified due to being an insignificant amount.

Bishul Akum: (Bih-shull Ah-koom) Ashkenazi. Food cooked by a non-Jew.

Bishul Akum:(Bee-shool Ah-koom) Sefardi. Food cooked by a non-Jew.

Bishul Yisrael: (Bee-shool Yees-rah-ell) Sefardi. Food cooked by a Jew, or a Jew had some part of the cooking, even if merely lighting the heating element.

Bishul Yisroel: (Bih-shull Yis-roh-eyl) Ashkenazi. Food cooked by a Jew, or a Jew had some part of the cooking, even if merely lighting the heating element.

Botul: (Baw-tool) Ashkenazi. A substance that is considered nullified due to being an insignificant amount.

Chadash: (Cha-dawsh) Sefardi. Literally "New", referring to new grain, sprouted after Passover. Chadash is prohibited to be eaten according to the Torah.

Chalak Bet Yosef: (Chah-lahk Bet Yo-seff) Sefardi. High level of kosher meat for Sefardim. Sefardic kashrut standards of meat.

Chalav: (Chah-lahv) Sefardi. חלב Dairy, literally "Milk".

Chalav Stam: (Chah-lahv Stahm) Sefardi. Dairy product that was kosher supervised during processing.

Chalav Yisrael: (Chah-lahv Yees-rah-ell) Sefardi. Dairy product supervised by a Jew from milking to processing.

Chodosh: (Cho-dosh) Ashkenazi. Literally "New", referring to new grain, sprouted after Passover. Chodosh is prohibited to be eaten according to the Torah.

Cholov: (Choh-luv) Ashkenazi. חלב Dairy, literally "Milk".

Cholov Stam: (Choh-luv Stahm) Ashkenazi. Dairy product that was kosher supervised during processing.

Cholov Yisroel: (Choh-luv Yis-roh-eyl) Ashkenazi. Dairy product supervised by a Jew from milking to processing.

Glatt Kosher: (Glawt Koh-sher) Ashkanazi. High level of kosher meat. Ashkenazic kashrut standards of meat.

Hashgacha: (Hawsh-gah-chah) Sefardi. Kasher supervision.

Hashgocho: (Hawsh-goh-chah) Ashkanazi. Kosher supervision.

Hechsher: (Hech-shehr) A symbol printed on a product proving it has been kosher supervised.

Kasher: (Kah-shehr) Sefardi. Same as "Kosher". Food that is fit or proper for a Jew to eat. A product that has been supervised by a rabbi or kashrut agency.

Kashrus: (Kawsh-roos) Ashkanazi. Pertaining to kosher food.

Kashrut: (Kawsh-root) Sefardi. Pertaining to kosher food.

Kemach Yashan: (Keh-mawch Yaw-shawn) Sefardi. Food made with Yashan flour. Literally "Old Flour". Designation that a food is Yashan.

Kemach Yoshon: (Keh-mawch Yo-shen) Ashkanazi. Food made with Yoshon flour. Literally "Old Flour". Designation that a food is Yoshon.

Kosher: (Koh-sher) Ashkanazi. Food that is fit or proper for a Jew to eat. A product that has been supervised by a rabbi or kashrut agency.

Mashgiach: (Mawsh-gee-ach) A kosher supervisor.

Mitzvah: (Mitz-vah) Ashkanazi. (Meetz-vah) Sefardi. One of the 613 Commandments for Jews in the Torah.

Parve/Pareve: (ParvPah-rev, or Par-veh) פרווה Neutral, neither meat or dairy. Food status containing absolutely no traces of meat or dairy ingredients.

Pas Akum: (Pahss Ah-koom) Ashkenazi. Food baked by a non-Jew, which is prohibited.

Pas Yisroel: (Pahss Yis-ro-eyl) Ashkenazi. Food baked by a Jew, or a Jew had some part of the baking, even if merely lighting the oven.

Pat Akum: (Pot Ah-koom) Sefardi. Food baked by a non-Jew, which is prohibited.

Pat Palter: (Pahss Pahl-ter) Ashkenazi. Kosher supervised food baked at a commercial non-Jewish bakery, using all kosher certified ingredients.

Pat Palter: (Pot Pahl-ter) Sefardi. Kosher supervised food baked at a commercial non-Jewish bakery, using all kosher certified ingredients.

Pat Yisroel: (Pot Yees-rah-ell) Sefardi. Food baked by a Jew, or a Jew had some part of the baking, even if merely lighting the oven.

Torah: (To-rah) Ashkenazi (To-rah) Sefardi. The Bible, or Five Books of Moses.

Yashan: (Yaw-shawn) Sefardi. Literally "Old", referring to old grain, sprouted before Passover. Yashan is supposed to be eaten according to the Torah.

Yoshon: (Yaw-shen) Ashkenazi. Literally "Old", referring to old grain, sprouted before Passover. Yoshon is supposed to be eaten according to the Torah.

Yashan Hashgacha: (Yaw-shawn Hawsh-gah-chah) Sefardi. This means that a product has been supervised not only for being kasher, but to make sure that any grains used are actually yashan.

Yoshon Hashgocho: (Yaw-shen Hawsh-goh-chah) Ashkenazi. This means that a product has been supervised not only for being kosher, but to make sure that any grains used are actually yoshon.